RULE XIV OPERATIONS OF SANITARY LANDFILLS
Section 1. Minimum Considerations for Siting and Designing Sanitary Landfills
The following guidelines, standards and criteria shall be applied in siting and designing sanitary landfills:
a) The location of the facility shall be consistent with the overall land use plan of the LGU.
b) The site shall be accessible from major roadways and thoroughfares, provided that if it is not accessible, the project design shall include means of access.
c) The site shall have an adequate quantity of earth cover material that is easily handled and compacted; as an alternative, an offsite guaranteed source of cover material shall be identified.
d) If the site is located within two (2) kilometers of an airport runway, it shall not pose a bird hazard to aircraft. The Owner/Operator shall institute a bird control program so as to prevent hazards to aircraft if bird population becomes significant due to the operation of the landfill. The site shall comply with other requirements for safety of flying aircraft in terms of height of structures, such ass provisions for obstruction lights, if required.
e) Locations of public water supply intakes located within one (1) kilometer from the facility, including active public drinking water supply wells, shall be shown on a facility map.
f) The facility shall not be constructed within 75 meters from a Holocene fault or known recent active fault.
g) If significant archaeological and cultural resources are present at the site, such resources shall be protected and preserved.
h) If the site is a habitat of listed endangered species, mitigation measures for protection of the species as required by applicable laws shall be included in the project proposal.
i) The site shall be chosen with regard to the sensitivities of the community`s residents. The Sangguniang Bayan/Lungsod of the host LGU shall adopt a resolution confirming compliance with the pertinent siting, design criteria and standards. The resolution shall be deemed as having fully satisfied the public sensitivity requirement of this section.
j) Except as provided by Section (m) of Rule XIV, for landfills located in sensitive resources areas, landfills shall be provided with a base liner system consisting of clay and/or geosynthetic membranes (geomembrane). If clay is used, it shall have a minimum thickness of 0.75m and permeability of 1x10-6 cm/sec or less. Geomembranes shall be at least 1.5 mm thick with a permeability of 1x10-14cm/sec or less; Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCL) shall have a thickness of at least 6.4 mm and a permeability of 1x10-9 cm/sec or less. If composite liner is used (clay under geo-membrane), the thickness of the clay liner may be reduced to 0.60 m. The overlying geomembrane shall have the same properties as stated above. In the design of geosynthetic liners, international standards (e.g. Geosynthetic Research Institute, or applicable ASTM standards) shall be used for its design and specifications in terms of properties, manufacturing and construction quality assurance and testing procedures.
k) Leachate collection and removal system shall be provided and designed such that leachate buildup in the landfill will be minimized. For design purposes, an allowable leachate level of not more than 0.60 meter over the liner system shall be maintained. If leachate is discharged to a receiving body of water, the discharge shall meet effluent discharge and water quality criteria prescribed by DENR.
l) Leachate storage facilities shall be designed with containment systems to prevent leachate from spillage and its migration into underlying groundwater or nearby surface body of water. For leachate impoundment ponds, the design shall include a geomembrane liner system, underlain by a low permeability soil layer of at least 0.30 m thick. The geomembrane liner shall be at least 1.5 mm thick with a permeability of 1x10-14 cm/sec or less; Liner specifications, CQA and engineering certification requirements shall be per provisions of Section 1m of Rule XIV. Adequate freeboard including allowance for rainfall volume and other safeguards shall be provided to prevent pond overflowing.
m) The site shall be located in an area where the landfill`s operation will not detrimentally affect environmentally sensitive resources such as aquifers, groundwater reservoir or watershed area, by provision of the following special mitigation measures and additional criteria:
1. The facility shall be a minimum 50 meters away from any perennial stream, lake or river.
2. The site shall be evaluated for presence of geologic hazards, faults, unstable soils, its foundation stability, and its hydrogeologic character. The site shall not be located in a floodplain.
3. It shall be provided with a composite base liner system consisting of a minimum 1.5 millimeter (mm) thick high density polyethylene liner (HDPE) underlain by a soil liner with a minimum thickness to 0.60 meter (m) and maximum permeability of 1x10-6 centimeter/second (cm/sec).
4. A Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL) with a minimum thickness of 6.4 mm and permeability of 1x10-9 cm/sec or less, may be substituted for the soil liner. Likewise, the design of the final cap shall be equivalent to its liner system in terms of permeability. The thickness of the final cover system shall be at least 1.5 m including a minimum 0.60 m thick soil foundation layer, its final cap, a drainage layer, and a vegetative layer of at least 0.30 m thick. If the thickness of the equivalent final cap makes the entire cover system less than 1.5 m thick, the deficiency shall be made up by increasing the thickness of the foundation layer.
5. Strict liner and final cap construction quality assurance (CQA) and testing shall be performed by a third party experienced in earthwork, clay and geosynthetic liner installation, quality assurance supervision, testing and inspection. The lead CQA person, as a minimum qualification or experience, must have supervised the installation of at least 100,0000 square meters each of clay and geosynthetic liner system; the CQA person or firm shall submit a construction completion report within 60 days of liner or final cap construction completion to the Department, certifying that construction of each liner system was performed and completed in accordance with its plans and specifications. The CQA report shall be certified by a registered Civil or Geotechnical Engineer or other registered Engineer, provided that the certifying Engineer shall have at least designed or supervised the installation of soil and geosynthetic liners of quantities similar to those of the lead CQA person.
n) The design of the landfill shall be statically stable and shall be able to withstand the effects of a ground acceleration generated by an earthquake of 100-year or more recurrence interval.
o) A separation of at least two (2.0) meters shall be maintained between the top of the liner system and underlying groundwater.
p) A temporary impoundment for drainage runoff shall be provided with a detention time sufficient for sediment removal and/or reduction, prior to its discharge.
q) The site shall be large enough to accommodate the community`s waste for a period of five (5) years or more during which people must internalize the value of environmentally sound and sustainable waste disposal.
r) The site chosen shall facilitate developing a landfill that will satisfy budgetary constraints, including site development, operation for many years, closure and post-closure care and possible remediation costs.
s) Operating plans shall include provisions for coordinating with recycling and resource recovery projects.
t) Designation of a separate containment area for household hazardous wastes.
u) A gas control system shall be provided when the volume of waste in the landfill has reached 0.5 million metric tons. The owner/operator shall consider recovery and conversion of methane gas into usable energy if economically viable. Prior to installation of gas control facilities, perimeter boundary gas monitoring shall be performed in accordance with Section 2(b) of Rule XIV.
v) Groundwater monitoring wells shall be placed at appropriate locations and depth for taking water samples that are representative of groundwater quality and for predicting groundwater flow.
w) Cover shall consist of a daily soil cover at least 6 inches in thickness applied at the end of each workday. Alternative Daily Cover (ADC), maybe used provided that the owner/operator can demonstrate to the Department in writing, the equivalency of the proposs4ed ADC in controlling infiltration, vector, odor and litter based on technical research or studies. In areas within the landfill that will not be used for at least 180 days, an additional interim soil cover of 6 inches thick shall be placed over the existing daily cover. The final cover shall consist of, from bottom to top, the foundation layer (consisting of 0.60m thick soil layer including interim cover), a final cap with an equivalent permeability as that of its liner system,. A drainage layer and a vegetative layer. Installation of final cover shall be completed within sic (6) months from the last receipt of waste.
x) Closure of the landfill shall be completed within one year of cessation of landfill operation.
y) Post-closure care shall be for a period of fifteen (15) years. DENR shall establish post-closure guidelines and requirements for financial assurance mechanisms within one year.
z) Small facility exemption from specific standards of this Section. The DENR will establish criteria for exemption within one (1) year from approval of the IRR.
aa) All technical reports, technical documents, plans and specifications pertaining to the engineering of the facility shall be certified and sealed by a licensed Engineer with relevant experience and expertise.
Section 2. Minimum Considerations for Operating Sanitary Landfills
In the operation of sanitary landfills, each site operator shall maintain the following minimum operating requirements:
a) Disposal site records of, but not limited to:
1. Records of weights or volumes accepted in a form and manner approved by the Department. Such records shall be submitted to the Department upon request, accurate to within ten percent (10%) and adequate for overall planning purposes and forecasting the rate of site filling;
2. Records of excavations which may affect the safe and proper operation of the site or cause damage to adjoining properties;
3. Daily logbook or file of the following information: fire, landslides, earthquake damage, unusual and sudden settlement, injury and property damage, accidents, explosions, receipt or rejection of non-permitted wastes, flooding and other unusual occurrences;
4. Record of personnel training; and
5. Copy of written notification to the Department, local health agency, and fire authority of names, addresses and telephone numbers of the operator or responsible party of the site.
b) Water quality monitoring of surface and ground waters and effluent, and gas emissions shall be performed in frequencies prescribed by the Department on a project by project basis; Parameters for groundwater, effluent and surface waters shall be as prescribed by the Department in the facility`s permit. For landfills sited under Section 1m of Rule XIV of this IRR, groundwater, perimeter gas monitoring and receiving surface water monitoring shall be on a quarterly basis and treated leachate effluent discharge shall be monitored for pH, 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) concentrations on a weekly basis or when discharged if discharge is not on a daily basis, and shall not exceed limits prescribed by the Department according to the classification of the receiving body of water. Other parameters to be monitored and their respective frequencies shall be in accordance with the facility`s permit. Owners/Operators of Section 1m of Rule XIV facilities shall submit monitoring and inspection reports on a quarterly basis to the designated enforcement authority with a copy furnished to the Department and other relevant agencies. The report shall be certified as to its correctness and accuracy by the owner/operator or his designated (in writing) representative. For other facilities, reporting frequencies shall be specified by the Department but in no case will it be more frequent than quarterly basis unless the facility is in a state of verification/assessment monitoring.
c) Groundwater Sampling Protocol – The DENR shall establish requirements and guidelines within one year from approval of this IRR.
d) Background Groundwater quality Monitoring Statistical Data Evaluation and Establishment of Concentration Limits for contaminant Indicators – The DENR shall establish requirements and guidelines within one year from approval of IRR.
e) Detection Groundwater Monitoring Data Statistical Analysis, Verification Monitoring – The DENR shall establish requirements and guidelines within one year from approval of IRR.
f) Assessment Monitoring and Corrective Action – The DENR shall establish requirements and guidelines within one year from approval of IRR.
g) Documentation of approvals, all reports, certification, plans and specifications, as built drawings, determinations and other requirements by the Department and other pertinent and relevant documents shall be kept in the facility`s operating record.
1. Each point of access from a public road shall be posted with an easily visible sign indicating the facility name and other pertinent information as required by the Department;
2. If the site is open to the public, there shall be an easily visible sign at the primary entrance of the site indicating the name of the site operator, the operator`s telephone number and hours of operation; and easily visible sign at an appropriate point shall indicate the schedule of charges and the general types of materials which will be accepted or not;
3. If the site is open to the public, there shall be an easily visible road sign and/or traffic control measures which direct traffic to the active face and other areas where wastes or recyclable materials will be deposited; and
4. Additional signs and/or measures may be required at a disposal site by the Department to protect personnel and public health and safety.
i) The site shall be designed to discourage unauthorized access by persons and vehicles by using a perimeter barrier or topographic constraints. Areas within the site where open storage or ponding of hazardous materials occurs shall be separately fenced or otherwise secured as determined by the Department. The Department may also require that other areas of the site to be fenced to create an appropriate level of security.
j) Roads within the permitted facility boundary shall be designed to minimize the generation of dust and the tracking of materials onto adjacent public roads. Such roads shall be kept in safe condition and maintained such that vehicle access and unloading can be conducted during inclement weather.
k) Sanitary facilities consisting of adequate number of toilets and handwashing facilities shall be available to personnel at or in the immediate vicinity of the site.
l) Safe and adequate drinking water supply for the site personnel shall be available.
m) The site shall have communication facilities available to site personnel to allow quick response to emergencies.
n) Where operations are conducted during hours of darkness, the site and/or equipment shall be equipped with adequate lighting as approved by the Department to ensure safety and to monitor the effectiveness of operations.
o) Operating and maintenance personnel shall wear and use appropriate safety equipment as required by the Department.
p) Personnel assigned to operate the site shall be adequately trained in subject pertinent to the site operation and maintenance, hazardous materials recognition and screening and heavy equipment operations, with emphasis on safety, health, environmental controls and emergency procedures. A record of such training shall be placed in the operating record.
q) The site operator shall provide adequate supervision of a sufficient number of qualified personnel to ensure proper operation of the site in compliance with all applicable laws, regulations, permit conditions and other requirements. The operator shall notify the Department and local health agency in writing of the names, addresses, and telephone number of the operator or responsible party. A copy of the written notification shall be placed in the operating record.
r) Any disposal site open to the public shall have an attendant present during public operating hours or the site shall be inspected by the operator on a regularly scheduled basis, as determined by the Department.
s) Unloading of solid wastes shall be confined to a small area as possible to accommodate the number of vehicles using the area without resulting in traffic, personnel, or public safety hazards. Waste materials shall normally be deposited at the toe of the fill, or as otherwise approved by the Department. For practical purposes, a working area shall be limited to 1.5 square meter or less per ton/day (tpd) of waste received on a daily basis, e.g. 30 sqm working area for a 20 tpd facility.
t) Solid waste shall be spread and compacted in layers with repeated passages of the landfill equipment to minimize voids within the cell and maximize compaction. The loose layer shall not exceed a depth approximately 0.60 m or two feet before compaction. Spreading and compacting shall be accomplished as rapidly as practicable, unless otherwise approved by the Department.
u) Covered surfaces of the disposal area shall be graded to promote lateral runoff of precipitation and to prevent ponding. Grades shall be established of sufficient slopes to accost for future settlement of the fill surface. Other effective maintenance methods may be allowed by the Department.
v) Cover material or native material unsuitable for cover, stockpiled on the site for use or removal, shall be placed so as not to cause problems or interfere with unloading, spreading, compacting, access, safety, drainage or other operations.